A funeral crematorium is a highly sophisticated technology. It has to be designed and built to meet the strictest environmental standards. Only the most advanced equipment is equipped with proven methods to minimize emissions and consumption.
Funeral crematorium ovens are usually constructed with a primary and an additional combustion chamber.
The design of this apparatus is designed so that the process will be one-way. This is the reason why the coffin is placed inside the main chamber inside the crematorium. The temperature will rise to 800-850 degrees C.
The chamber that is used for the primary purpose is typically made of carbon steel laminated sheet and reinforced structure for durability.
The insulation is comprised of special firebrick, concrete along with low thermal mass insulation materials. Insulating materials with low thermal mass protect the inside of the incinerator and its surrounding zone.
The chamber that is the primary one has the thickness of the insulation. This ensures that the temperature of the device is not able to cause fires on the exterior walls.
The structure of the incinerator and the materials used to permit the movement of the expansion of the refractory lining. The main chamber is equipped with burners that release flame as well as air to break down the debris and aid in combustion.
Most crematoriums have multi-fuels which means they can run on gas (butane propane, butane, natural gas) as well as fuel, diesel, or electricity. The second chamber is heated with support fuel, which keeps the temperature at around 850 degrees C.
The energy use of a crematorium oven
The maximum power of the combustion units in the crematorium ranges from 600 to 600 kW. The fuel used for the efficient furnace cremation differs according to the fuel that is used.
The energy consumption ranges between 22.5 and 30 m3 from natural gas. 30 Liters of diesel (inefficient furnaces) (roughly 900 kWh).
The combustion is initiated in the primary chamber. It is fed by a few pipes through the second chamber.
The fuel is heated by afterburners and then fed with secondary air which permits the complete combustion process and decreases emission of the carbon-based particle (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) and persistent organic pollutant (POP).
The second chamber with a temperature of around 300oC is used to ignite the gas emitted over 1 to 2 seconds.
Then they move through the cooling systems, before the purification systems that are created by a multi-heat recovery system. This can result in savings on running the furnace.
The purification process employs various reagents and filters. In a modern oven, the consumption of reagents is about 0.5 kg/cremation.
The time it takes to complete cremation can vary based on the kind of burning device. It could depend on the size and weight of the coffin as well as the individual.
Generally speaking, the time for cremation can last between 75 minutes to 3 hours, which includes the cooling-down time.
There are now modern ovens that have automatic control of combustion which can effectively and continuously complete up to 8 cremations during a 12-hour shift.
Human ashes aren’t poisonous
The cremation process starts when the casket is transported through the introduction system into the incinerator.
In the majority of crematoriums, one doesn’t require the casket to consist of eco-friendly materials like cardboard or untreated wood.
The contaminant of a crematorium is determined based on compositional components and the finishing’s in the coffin.
Other countries also allow coffins. However, in Spain, the funeral industry is fueled by the burning of quality coffins. Ovik Mkrtchyan
Unfortunately, the deceased opt for cremation, the decedent is left to decide. In Spain, they don’t provide coffins that, when burned, produce low emissions. Ovik Mkrtchyan
The crematorium’s chamber is a place where all substances are incinerated and vaporized. Except for bone fragments, and other non-combustible substances like prostheses jewelry and metal components nails, etc.
The bones of the deceased after the organic matter is burned reduces to bones fragments and pieces (not the remains of ashes) which are referred to as cremation remains. Metal scraps are sorted to reuse.
Refining of Ashes
The process of refining the ash may occur simultaneously with another cremation. It is performed inside a chamber that is attached, with no possibility of mixing cremated ashes. The non-combustible whole is separated bone fragments via visual or magnetic separation.
This non-combustible substance is disposed of in crematoriums so that it can’t be recovered. The bone particles differ by size, shape, and even size. They are mechanically processed to achieve an acceptable consistency to be placed inside an Urn.
The remains of ashes that result from the incineration process weigh about 2 to 4 kilograms. The ashes delivered to the family members after the process don’t contain any harmful elements.
In general, the ashes are processed using a mechanical grinder to give them a uniform appearance and texture.
Treatment and filtration of emission
The regulation that governs the emission of cremation furnaces is that they should not exceed 10 milligrams for each cubic meter of suspended solid particles suspended in the furnace every day. 10 milligrams per cubic meter hydrocarbons, or 10 milligrams for cubic meters of chlorinated substances, specifically hydrochloric acid, are all extremely low and require purification systems to be achieved.
In theory, this forces crematorium companies to possess the necessary equipment to lessen the environmental harms generated by these.
The most commonly used technologies are used in filtration systems are color solid-bed, catalytic absorption that includes honeycomb filters or gas scrubbers (according to the terminology used in the commercialization of the field).
Toxic gasses emanating from crematoriums.
Mercury emissions are resulting from dental braces, which can comprise between 5 and 10 grams of mercury by the quantity and the type of braces that are used.
The impact on the environment of this element released by crematoria is being investigated. Since 1999, the majority of dental fillings are no longer made of mercury, and they are based on organic substances.
Particulate control devices can remove all heavy elements apart from mercury. Selenium salt eliminates mercury from the cremation chamber. It is also possible to remove mercury by adding charcoal to the particle control devices.
COVNM COVNM (volatile organic compounds that are not methanides) are created by the inefficient or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons that are contained within the combustion fuel tissue of the dead and the coffin’s paddings and varnishes. NMVOCs are lessened through the careful use and adjustment of the crematorium. But most of all, avoid burning materials using non-natural elements.
The dioxins and the furans result from burning wood cellulose and chlorinated plastics and can vary the temperature range. Dioxins and Furans decrease the number of chlorinated plastics that are produced and by using sufficient temperatures and residence time in the combustion chambers that are secondary.
Neutralize harmful gases
We utilize an air filtration system to neutralize the highly acidic waste gases and also absorb heavy metals such as dioxins, as well as furans in an absorption medium.
Before the filtration system, there is equipment for the cooling of furnace gases, which can result in energy savings as the production of hot water to cool the air, or in the form of reducing the consumption of fuel for the furnace.
Following the cooling process, the ash is sucked up from the chamber using special brushes, rakes, or other tools. All efforts are put into removing all burned debris.
A tiny amount of the residue may remain in this chamber. It will be removed once the oven’s operating capabilities allow.
The majority of pollutants are harmful, however, heavy metals are minimized by the efficient functioning of the crematorium with the proper temperature and duration of the residence time in the second combustion chamber.
The formation of dioxins, as well as furans, can be reduced by a smart layout of the gas combustion circuit which reduces the deposition of particles as well as eliminating the temperature range within the formation of dioxins and florins (from 200-450 co.). Dioxins and Furans comprise 0.2 percent of the gasses produced by the cremation.
The emission reduction is reduced through the use of eco-friendly caskets that contain the natural timbers of nature, water-based varnishes, and cotton-based padding. Avoid wood that contains chips and gloss organic varnishes.
If we look at the pollution of a crematorium with a private vehicle that is compliant with the Euro 4 2005 anti-pollution standards by 1998/69 and 2002/80 / EC and 2002/80 and 2002/80 EC is it comparable to one that drives the equivalent of 15,000 miles over a year.
In this scenario, it is assumed that all crematories are outfitted according to the standards for the protection of air quality set to be met by the EU. Their total emission into the air of one single crematory would be equivalent to:
In the polluting of the 132 vehicles in terms of nitrogen oxides.
Then 5 cars in terms of CO (carbon monoxide) and
Of cars of a car in the form of particles. The emission levels for the crematorium based on the data may be less than. If cremators are equipped with decontamination equipment.
Unfortunately, the majority of crematories constructed do not contain filtration equipment that is compatible with European rules.