Chilli is a berry-fruit plant of the genus Capsicum, a nightshade family member, Solanaceae. It is very popular and common in many countries around the world. In addition, chillies are widely used with other spices to add pungent ‘heat’ to dishes. This spice originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many varieties of peppers spread worldwide and are used for food and traditional medicine. Today, chilli Cultivation is popular in various countries around the world.
How to Start Chilli Farming?
Starting commercial chilli farming is easy and simple, just like other crop farming. Chilli plants are very hardy and strong, and they require less caring and other management. When you start any plant to sow, you need to know the various most essential sections that would be helpful in profitable cultivation. We can provide information related to more trustworthy tractors in chilli cultivation. We can recommend the Swaraj 744 tractor that is helpful in the complete procedure of farming.
Chilli Cultivation – Site Selection
Farmers can grow chilli plants in a range of soils. But black soils are suitable for rainfed crops, which retain moisture for a long period. On the other hand, deltaic soils, sandy loams and well-drained soils are good irrigation conditions. Chilli crop prefers a soil pH ranging from 6–7.
Chilli Cultivation – Land Preparation
For growing chillies, farmers have to prepare the land perfectly. They can grow the chilli plants in all types of soil but clay loam, sandy loam, and loam soils are best suitable for it.
You should use soil that is well-drained and well aerated. For chilli farming, acidic soils are not suitable. After each ploughing, prepare the land by giving 2-3 ploughing and clod crushing. While preparing the land, add ample amounts of farmyard manure and compost. Add F.Y.M. per acre or 15-20 tonnes of compost and mix it well in the soil at least 12 to 20 days before planting or sowing transplants.
To protect the soil from white ants and other soil pests, at the time of the last ploughing, you should apply aldrin at the rate of 8-10 kg per acre or Heftaf @10-15 kg per acre to the soil.
Chilli Farming – Climate Requirement
Chilli Spice is a plant of the tropical and subtropical regions. It grows best in humid and warm climates, and a temperature range between 20° C and 25° C. During blossom development and fruit formation, low moisture into the soil causes the blossom, bud and fruit to drop. Excessive rainfall is harmful to the crops as it causes wilting and rotting of the plant. As a rain crop, chillies are grown in areas with an annual rainfall of 25 to 30 inches.
There are numerous cultivars or varieties available around the world.
Therefore, you can choose any variety of chilli depending on its availability in your area.
Chilli Farming – Planting
Farmers can plant the chilli either by direct sowing of seeds or by planting transplants. 40 to 45 days old seedlings/plants are used for transplantation. Use 75 cm row to row spacing and 45 cm plant to plant spacing.
Farmers direct sow under rainfed conditions. For direct sown crops, seeds are drilled by the end of March or the first week of April. The seed rate is 2.5 to 3.0 kg per acre. Thinning and gap filling are done on cloudy days after 30 to 40 days of sowing.
Chilli Cultivation – Fertilizing
Urea Nitrogen in the form of 25 kg Nitrogen @ 55 kg/acre, Phosphorous Nitrogen @ 12 kg, Single Super Phosphate Nitrogen 75 kg and Potash Nitrogen @ 12 kg MOP (Muriate of Potash) Nitrogen @ 20 kg/acre. Apply a half dose of nitrogen and a full dose of phosphorus and potash at the time of transplanting. Apply the remaining nitrogen after the first harvest.
Chilli plants cannot tolerate heavy moisture, so irrigate only when needed. However, heavy irrigation leads to stunted vegetative growth and flower drop.
The number of irrigations and the irrigation interval depend on the soil and climatic conditions. For example, if the plants are seen dropping at 4 pm, it shows that the plant needs irrigation.
Flower and fruit development are the most important stages of water requirement. However, water should not stagnate in the nursery and the field, leading to fungal infection.
Pests & Diseases
Common pests of chilli plants are fruit borer, mite, white aphid fly etc. And common diseases of chilli plants are powdery mildew, thrips, dieback and fruit rot, wilting and wilting, anthracnose, bacterial leaf spot, yellow mosaic etc.
You can start harvesting green or ripe chillies depending on the market demand and price. To increase the number of shoots, spray Urea @ 10 g/Ltr and Soluble @ 10 gm/Ltr (1% solution each) within 15 days during harvesting time.
They are harvested for canning purposes when the fruits are red. Chillies are harvested at a full ripe stage for drying purposes.
When you want to get information about cultivation, you should also know the equipment that will help to boost the yield. Rotavators, cultivators, tillers and tractors are essential in every cultivation. However, the Mahindra 555 tractor is the most pivotal equipment.
For more information regarding chilli farming Business and any other farming, stay tuned with us.